Global Warming: From Theory to Fact

David Malakoff | NPR

Today’s realization that humans are influencing Earth’s climate is rooted in more than a century of scientific research. Here, six scientists who helped turn climate change from theory to fact:

Svante August Arrhenius: In 1896, the Swedish chemist published the first major theoretical explanation of how two transparent gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, help trap the sun’s heat in Earth’s atmosphere and warm the planet.

In On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground, Arrhenius also recognized that burning fossil fuels added CO2 to what he called the atmospheric “hothouse.” But he figured it would take humans thousands of years to have a noticeable impact. And he later predicted that a little extra CO2 would be a good thing: “We may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the Earth.”

Glen Thomas Trewartha: In 1937, at the height of the Dust Bowl, the University of Wisconsin geographer helped introduce the term “greenhouse effect.” In the textbook, An Introduction to Weather and Climate, he explained that the atmosphere was like “a pane of glass” in a greenhouse… thus maintaining surface temperatures considerably higher than they otherwise would be.”

Guy S. Callendar: In 1938, the English coal engineer published one of the first studies to suggest that burning fossil fuels was warming the planet. In The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and Its Influence on Temperature, Callendar figured that humans had added millions of tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. And he assembled temperature records from more than 200 stations around the world to show that average temperatures had risen nearly 1 degree Farenheit between 1880 and 1934. Like Arrhenius, he predicted rising temperatures would have benefits, from better harvests to less snow.

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